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正念的好处

Practices for Improving Emotional and Physical Well-Being

年轻女子在背心的特写, 下巴微微翘起, 闭上眼睛, warm light passing through gauzy drapes behind her

这是个忙碌的世界. 你一边叠衣服,一边看孩子,另一边看电视. 你一边听广播、一边上班,一边计划一天的生活,然后再计划周末. But in the rush to accomplish necessary tasks, 你可能会发现自己失去了与当下的联系——错过了你正在做的事情和你的感受. 你有没有注意到你今天早上是否休息得很好,或者在你上班的路上连翘花盛开了?

正念是有意识地将你的注意力集中在当下的时刻,并且不加评判地接受它. 正念现在正在被科学地检验,并被发现是减少压力和整体幸福感的关键因素.

负担得起的压力在线疗法

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正念的好处是什么?

The cultivation of mindfulness has roots in Buddhism, 但大多数宗教都包括某种类型的祈祷或冥想技巧,有助于将你的思想从惯常的专注转向对当下的欣赏和对生活的更大视角.

名誉教授Jon Kabat-Zinn, 麻省大学医学中心减压诊所的创始人和前主任, 帮助将正念冥想的实践引入主流医学,并证明了正念练习可以改善身体和心理症状,并在健康方面带来积极的变化, 的态度, 和行为.

念力提高幸福感. 提高你的正念能力可以支持许多态度,有助于你获得满意的生活. Being mindful makes it easier to savor the pleasures in life as they occur, helps you become fully engaged in activities, and creates a greater capacity to deal with adverse events. 专注于此时此地, 许多练习正念的人发现,他们不太可能陷入对未来的担忧或对过去的遗憾, are less preoccupied with concerns about success and self-esteem, and are better able to form deep connections with others.

正念改善身体健康. If greater well-being isn’t enough of an incentive, 科学家们已经发现,正念技术可以在很多方面帮助改善身体健康. 正念可以:帮助缓解压力, 治疗心脏病, 降低血压, 减少慢性疼痛, , 改善睡眠, and alleviate gastrointestinal difficulties.

正念改善心理健康. 近年来, 心理治疗师已经将正念冥想作为治疗许多问题的一个重要因素, 包括:抑郁, 药物滥用, 饮食失调, 夫妻的冲突, 焦虑性障碍, 和强迫症.

正念是如何起作用的?

Some experts believe that mindfulness works, 在某种程度上, 通过帮助人们接受他们的经历——包括痛苦的情绪——而不是以厌恶和回避的方式对他们做出反应.

正念冥想与心理疗法相结合越来越普遍, 尤其是认知行为疗法. 这一发展很有意义, 因为冥想和认知行为疗法都有一个共同的目标,那就是帮助人们获得对非理性的看法, 不适应的, 和弄巧成拙的想法.

正念技术

There is more than one way to practice mindfulness, but the goal of any mindfulness technique is to achieve a state of alert, 通过有意识地关注思想和感觉而不加评判来集中放松. This allows the mind to refocus on the present moment. All mindfulness techniques are a form of meditation.

基本的正念冥想 -安静地坐着,专注于你的自然呼吸或一个词或你默默地重复的“咒语”. 让思想自由来去,不带评判,把注意力重新集中在呼吸或咒语上.

身体的感觉 -不加判断地注意身体的细微感觉,如痒或刺痛,让它们过去. Notice each part of your body in succession from head to toe.

感觉 – Notice 风景, sounds, smells, tastes, and touches. 给它们命名为“视觉”、“声音”、“嗅觉”、“味觉”或“触觉”,不加判断,让它们离开.

情绪 – Allow 情绪 to be present without judgment. Practice a steady and relaxed naming of 情绪: “joy,” “anger,” “frustration.” 接受 the presence of the 情绪 without judgment and let them go.

敦促冲浪 应付欲望(对上瘾的物质或行为),让它们过去. Notice how your body feels as the craving enters. 用确信它会消退的知识取代渴望消失的愿望.

Mindfulness meditation and other practices

Mindfulness can be cultivated through mindfulness meditation, a systematic method of focusing your attention. 你可以按照书上或磁带上的指示,自己学着冥想. 然而, 你可能会从导师或小组的支持中受益,回答问题,帮助你保持动力. Look for someone using meditation in a way compatible with your beliefs and goals.

如果你身体有问题, you may prefer a medically oriented program that incorporates meditation. Ask your physician or hospital about local groups. Insurance companies increasingly cover the cost of meditation instruction.

开始自己动手

有些类型的冥想主要涉及集中注意力——重复一个短语或专注于呼吸的感觉, allowing the parade of thoughts that inevitably arise to come and go. 集中冥想技巧, as well as other activities such as tai chi or yoga, can induce the well-known relaxation response, which is very valuable in reducing the body’s response to stress.

Mindfulness meditation builds upon concentration practices. 以下是它的工作原理:

随大流. 在正念冥想, 一旦你集中精力, 你观察内心思想的流动, 情绪, and bodily sensations without judging them as good or bad.

注意. You also notice external sensations such as sounds, 风景, and touch that make up your moment-to-moment experience. The challenge is not to latch onto a particular idea, 情感, 或感觉, or to get caught in thinking about the past or the future. 而不是, 你观察你的头脑中来来去去的事物,并发现哪些心理习惯会产生幸福或痛苦的感觉.

留在这. 有时, this process may not seem relaxing at all, 但随着时间的推移,当你对越来越多的经历感到舒适时,它会为你提供更大的幸福感和自我意识的关键.

实践验收

最重要的是,正念练习包括接受每时每刻在你意识中出现的一切. It involves being kind and forgiving toward yourself.

以下是一些需要牢记的技巧:

轻轻重定向. 如果你走神去计划, 做白日梦, 或批评, notice where it has gone and gently redirect it to sensations in the present.

再试一次. If you miss your intended meditation session, simply start again.

By practicing accepting your experience during meditation, it becomes easier to accept whatever comes your way during the rest of your day.

培养正念非正式

除了正式的冥想, 你也可以通过在日常活动中把注意力集中在每时每刻的感觉上,非正式地培养正念. 这可以通过一次只做一件事来实现——一次只做一件事,并给予你全部的注意力. 当你用牙线剔牙时, 宠物狗, 或者吃个苹果, 放慢这一过程,当它展开并涉及到你所有的感官时,充分地感受它.

正念练习

如果正念冥想吸引你, going to a class or listening to a meditation tape can be a good way to start. In the meantime, here are two mindfulness exercises you can try on your own.

基本的正念冥想

This exercise teaches basic mindfulness meditation.

  • Sit on a straight-backed chair or cross-legged on the floor.
  • 专注于呼吸的一个方面, such as the sensations of air flowing into your nostrils and out of your mouth, or your belly rising and falling as you inhale and exhale.
  • Once you’ve narrowed your concentration in this way, begin to widen your focus. Become aware of sounds, sensations, and your ideas.
  • Embrace and consider each thought 或感觉 without judging it good or bad. If your mind starts to race, return your focus to your breathing. 然后再次扩展你的意识.

学会活在当下

一种不那么正式的正念方法也能帮助你活在当下,充分参与你的生活. You can choose any task or moment to practice informal mindfulness, 你是否在吃东西, 洗澡, 走, 接触合作伙伴, 或者和孩子或孙子一起玩耍. 注意以下几点会有帮助:

  • Start by bringing your attention to the sensations in your body
  • Breathe in through your nose, allowing the air downward into your lower belly. 让你的腹部充分扩张.
  • 现在用嘴呼气
  • Notice the sensations of each inhalation and exhalation
  • Proceed with the task at hand slowly and with full deliberation
  • 充分调动你的感官. Notice each sight, touch, and sound so that you savor every sensation.
  • When you notice that your mind has wandered from the task at hand, gently bring your attention back to the sensations of the moment.

投资你自己

The effects of mindfulness meditation tend to be dose-related — the more you do, 它通常产生的效果就越大. 大多数人发现,大脑开始安定下来至少需要20分钟, 这是一个合理的开始方式. If you’re ready for a more serious commitment, Jon Kabat-Zinn recommends 45 minutes of meditation at least six days a week. 但是你可以从短时间内练习这里描述的技巧开始.

经许可改编 积极心理学:驾驭幸福、个人力量和正念的力量, 哈佛卫生出版社出版.