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哈佛健康杂志的一篇文章

几乎酒精

我(或我爱的人)喝酒有问题吗?

年轻的女人,手里拿着酒,绝望地盯着酒瓶

很有可能你的饮酒问题没有被定义或描述为“酒鬼”.” Many people use alcohol to deal with stress but do 不 realize that it exacerbates the problems in their lives. There are techniques and therapies available to help you to lessen your dependence on alcohol and rediscover balance in your life.

你是酒鬼吗??

有些人认为世界上只有两种人:酗酒者和不酗酒者. 许多人还认为,世界杯足彩app要么是天生的酗酒者,要么不是. 这是长期以来的主流观点, 虽然这句话对一些人来说可能有些戏剧性, 它确实有现实依据. Those who hold these beliefs tend to be people who have experienced or witnessed the most severe symptoms and/or the most severe consequences of drinking, 如:

  • 无法停止喝酒,从第一次喝酒开始
  • 反复的失去知觉.e. 不记得第二天发生了什么)只喝了几杯之后
  • 因醉酒驾车多次被捕
  • 喝酒时不止一次变得暴力

We know from our own clinical experience that there are people who develop severe alcohol drinking patterns and behaviors such as the ones just described. 他们是真正的酒鬼. 然而, there are also a large number of people who don’t meet the accepted criteria for diagnosing alcoholism, 但却陷入了酗酒问题的灰色地带. 这些几乎是酒鬼.

负担得起的酒精问题在线治疗

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真正的酗酒者和. 几乎是酗酒者

任何酗酒的人都面临着不良健康后果的风险, 但有些人似乎面临着与酒精有关的健康问题的高风险. 原因似乎主要是生物学上的, 尽管环境因素也可能在这一差异中发挥作用. 例如,研究人员发现,人体代谢酒精的方式不同. 因为世界杯足彩app的生理构成在出生时就决定了, there is some truth in the idea that we have certain traits that make us more (or less) vulnerable to the effects of alcohol.

Our discovery of the almost alcoholic came through our many years of working 不 only with people who had the kinds of drinking problems just described, but also with a much larger group of people with a variety of drinking patterns that didn’t meet the criteria for alcoholism. 正如前面提到的, the majority of this larger group came to us 不 because they were concerned (or because others had expressed concern) about their drinking but for help with some other problem. 他们寻求帮助的问题与饮酒之间的联系后来才浮出水面. 让世界杯足彩app来看几个例子:

珍妮花的故事

詹妮弗,41岁,已婚,有两个孩子,一个11岁的儿子和一个9岁的女儿. 詹妮弗的家庭是一个典型的双职工家庭. 她曾在一家大型房地产开发和管理公司担任中层管理工作, 而她的丈夫, 丹, 在一所大型大学的信息技术部门工作. 他们认识的大多数夫妇也是这样, 他们努力平衡工作和育儿的需求, 更不用说家政了. They enjoyed their life in a comfortable suburban community with good schools and access to recreation; at the same time, 珍妮弗和丹有时都表示,他们觉得生活在“跑步机上”很困难.

丹和珍在大学三年级时相识,毕业一年后结婚. 作为大学生, 他们和大多数朋友一样喜欢聚会, 但从来没有“过火”过. 他们每个人都知道偶尔的宿醉, 尤其是在大一, 毕业后,两人都喜欢在足球比赛时和朋友聚会.

珍在怀孕期间完全没有喝酒. 然而, 在她的第二个孩子出生之后, 在她休完六周产假回到工作岗位后, 她和丹一起,像往常一样,在下班后“减压”时喝一杯葡萄酒. 这就意味着要把孩子们从车上卸下来, 做饭, 监督作业, 为第二天做准备, 等等. 然后,在孩子们上床睡觉后,珍会喝第二杯酒,有时是第三杯. She told us that for a number of years this was an effective way 为她 to release the stress that built up over the course of the day. 她还觉得第三杯酒能让她睡得更好.

当珍寻求治疗时, 这并不是因为她酗酒——她仍然认为酗酒是正常的, 确实有帮助, 考虑到她高压的生活方式. 珍是由她的初级护理医生推荐的, 她曾向他们诉说过自己睡不好觉的担忧. 没有睡好让她第二天感到“兴奋”. 这种模式使她感到越来越沮丧, 这反映在易怒上(尤其是对孩子们), 慢性疲劳感, 丹抱怨他们的性生活正在“消失”.她向医生咨询了安眠药或抗抑郁药的情况. 医生说她会考虑的,但她想让珍先和顾问谈谈.

Jen就是世界杯足彩app在办公室里认识的这一大群人中的一个很好的例子, 酗酒的人出现问题的原因之一. 她做了 预约一个咨询师,因为她担心自己酗酒.

詹妮弗是个酒鬼吗?

No. She would 不 have enough of the symptoms to meet the accepted criteria for any of the alcohol-related diagnoses. 她不是那种一饮而尽的人. 她也没有频繁饮酒以维持体内一定的酒精水平. 她就不会停电了. 等等.

然而,她明显出现了一些症状,比如睡眠受到干扰, 慢性疲劳, 抑郁和愤怒——这是真正的酗酒者经常报告的. 这个问题的答案, 为珍, was that at some point she had crossed over the line that separates normal social drinking from almost alcoholic drinking. 好消息, 为她, was that this discovery became an opportunity to reassess her drinking (along with the stress that seemed to be driving it) and make some decisions.

最后, 她做了一些改变不仅仅是在酗酒方面, 但她也知道如何应对她所面临的压力,如何在她的生活中创造一些平衡. 她在上大学和新婚的时候曾经有过这种平衡, 但随着她的生活充满了越来越多的责任,她的生活变得不平衡了.

马库斯的故事

马库斯, 19, had done well in high school despite struggling with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (注意力缺陷多动症). He’d avoided alcohol during those years—he’d been warned that his 注意力缺陷多动症 medication didn’t mix well with liquor—but once he got to college, 他开始喝酒, 通常是在狂欢和朋友的陪伴下.

起初, 马库斯酗酒的缺点是相当微妙的:他的成绩下降了一点, 有时早上喝酒后还会缺课. 在有利的一面, he became more outgoing when he drank and was less shy than he’d been through his high school years. A complicating factor for 马库斯’s situation was his age: drinking in the college-age population typically involves a great deal of binge drinking, 通常是围绕饮酒游戏组织的(酗酒is defined by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism as a drinking pattern corresponding to five or more drinks for a male and four or more for a female within about two hours, 导致血液酒精含量达到 .08%或更多.) One such game is “beer pong” in which opponents try to bounce a Ping-Pong ball into one a不her’s full glass of beer. 当你的对手把球打进你的啤酒时,你必须把它喝光. 然后又开始了另一轮.

马库斯觉得啤酒桌球这样的游戏很有趣. 这在社会上是可以接受的,对他来说也是克服羞怯的简单方法. 喝醉酒也使他更容易与女孩交谈,这进一步强化了他的行为.

在他上学的第二个学期中, 虽然, 马库斯有一门课可能不及格,另外三门课勉强及格. 更糟糕的是, 一个周五晚上,他在兄弟会聚会上喝了太多酒, 他和一个以为马库斯在和他女朋友调情的人打了一架. 交换的话, 但它并没有就此结束, 马库斯推了那人一下,然后拳打脚踢. 由于担心会引发一场斗殴,有人拨打了校园警察的911.

根据学院对校园暴力的零容忍政策, 马科斯下个学期被禁止住在校园里. 但他确实没被开除, he finished that first year with a grade point average that jeopardized his chances of getting into the pharmacy school he’d always dreamed of attending.

马库斯是个酒鬼吗?

马库斯 is a不her example of someone who has crossed the line and entered the grey area of almost alcoholic drinking. Did this young man see the connection between the negative consequences he was seeing and his drinking behavior? No.

他寻求心理咨询的唯一原因是, 以代替那学期剩下的休学, 马库斯 was offered the option of enrolling in an anger management program at the student counseling center. 这是典型的干预,并不是马库斯独有的.

如世界杯足彩app所知, 在马库斯的案件中,当局(甚至是亲人)关注单一事件是很常见的, 他的攻击性行为,并将其视为问题所在, 而忽略了发生的情境(酗酒). This is more evidence that 几乎是酗酒者 have until now remained a largely invisible segment of the population.

Research consistently shows that people tend to drink the heaviest in their late teens and early-to-mid twenties. 年轻的成年人,无论是男性还是女性,都特别容易酗酒. 对于这些年轻人中的一些人来说,这样的饮酒可能会导致其他严重的问题. 例如, some studies have shown that a region in the brain associated with learning and memory—the hippocampus—is smaller in people who began drinking as adolescents. And studies of teens who were treated for alcohol withdrawal showed that they were more likely to have memory problems than adolescents who did 不 drink.

不幸的是, 一些大学生所认为的社交饮酒可能包括各种狂饮的“游戏.“并不是每个大学生都酗酒, but this behavior tends to be fairly widespread and relatively tolerated by peers on college campuses. 学生们喝得烂醉如泥的情况并不少见. 因为社会背景, 也因为他只在周末喝酒, 马库斯认为自己喝酒是正常的. 他认为他只是在做很多其他学生做的事情, 他怎么会有酗酒的问题? The reality is that most college students who binge on alcohol will pass through this phase and emerge in adulthood as normal social drinkers. Some of the heaviest drinkers may suffer some memory or learning problems connected to their earlier alcohol use, 尽管他们自己可能永远不会有这种联系. 少数人会成为彻头彻尾的酒鬼. 有些人,比如马库斯,会变成酒鬼.

马库斯’s experiences—getting into a fight and struggling with academics—were clearly consequences of his drinking. 单凭他们自己的努力,是无法使他获得酗酒诊断的资格的. 换句话说,他不符合公认的诊断“框框”.“如果博士. 多伊尔得出的结论是马库斯没有酗酒问题, that young man could have concluded that the negative things that were happening to him were just a matter of bad luck—being in the wrong place at the wrong time—and decided that there was no need to change his drinking behavior. 从那以后,事情很可能会继续走下坡路. 但是通过向马库斯介绍"几乎酗酒者"的概念. 多伊尔帮助马库斯看清了他酗酒和酗酒后果之间的联系. 在那里,他们可以讨论马库斯是否应该考虑为他的酗酒做点什么, 即使他不是个酒鬼.

经许可改编 几乎酒: 我(或我爱的人)喝酒有问题吗?