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工作 & 职业生涯

工作场所的心理健康

你是否正在与焦虑、抑郁、倦怠或工作中的欺凌作斗争? 对付有毒的工作环境有很多方法, 缓解远程工作的压力, 改善你的工作和生活的平衡.

年轻的黑人女性会计有问题

工作 can play a huge role in your overall health and welfare. In addition to the financial benefits, your job can add meaning, structure, purpose to your life. 它还能给你一种认同感, 增强你的自尊, 并提供一个重要的社交渠道.

然而, 工作ing in a negative environment can have the opposite effect and take a heavy toll on your emotional health. 长时间, 人员配备不足, 缺乏支持, 骚扰 in the 工作place can ramp up your stress levels and contribute to mental health problems such as 焦虑, 抑郁症, 和药物滥用. These problems have only been exacerbated by the pandemic and the major shifts in our 工作ing habits over the last couple of years. 世界杯足彩app中的许多人已经花了几个月的时间来适应远程工作带来的新压力, 例如, only to now have to re-adjust to commuting and 工作ing onsite again. 它让世界杯足彩app感到紧张、不开心,对未来和世界杯足彩app如何度过世界杯足彩app的日子感到担忧.

就像工作会影响你的心理健康一样, 也, 你的心理健康会影响你的工作, 影响你的工作表现和生产力. 事实上, recent estimates suggest mental health issues cost the global economy $1 trillion annually in lost productivity, 旷工, 和员工流失率.

对于世界杯足彩app大多数人来说,工作环境的很多方面都是世界杯足彩app无法控制的. The culture at 工作 is established by those in senior positions above us and we often feel unable to speak out without 恐惧 of judgment or risking our jobs. But whether your mental health issues are caused by your 工作place or stem from elsewhere and are affecting your performance at 工作, 你可以采取一些措施来照顾自己,保护自己的健康. 有了这些建议,你可以学会和你的雇主谈论心理健康问题, 应对工作中共同的挑战, 增加你的能力, better strive to fulfill your potential—in the 工作place and beyond.

工作场所的心理健康风险因素

对你的心理健康有负面影响的常见工作挑战包括:

  • 长, 僵化的小时, short-staffing due to cutbacks or unfilled vacancies, 或者是不断增加的工作量.
  • 远程工作,工作时间和个人时间没有明确区分.
  • A toxic 工作place that fosters bullying, 骚扰, or 滥用.
  • Lack of training or guidance for the role you’re expected to fulfill.
  • 来自管理层的关于任务、目标或决策的有限或不明确的沟通.
  • 缺乏支持,缺乏设备或其他工作资源,或不安全的工作方式.

我需要找人谈谈?

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Signs and symptoms of a mental health issue at 工作

世界杯足彩app每个人在工作中都会时不时地遇到糟糕的日子,事情似乎都不对头的日子. 你可能很难集中注意力, 感到压力过大, 易怒, 和欣赏的, or lack the energy and motivation to complete even the most basic task. 但如果你每天都有这种感觉,那就可能是出了问题的危险信号.

Many mental health problems can creep up on you slowly. 你会很习惯疲惫的感觉, 焦虑, downb吃 at 工作 that it starts to feel “normal”. But ignoring the early signs of a problem won’t make it go away; it will just become worse over time, leaving you vulnerable to illnesses and other health problems, 导致倦怠, damaging your job performance, 的关系, home life.

While the symptoms of mental health problems can vary wildly according to the condition and the person experiencing them, it’s important to be aware of any changes to how you’re 思考, 感觉, 和行为方式. If you identify with several of the following symptoms in yourself (or in a 工作 colleague or employee), it could indicate that it’s time to reach out for help.

  • 工作表现下降. 在日常工作中(以及在家庭或社交生活中),你努力去完成自己的职责.
  • 无法集中注意力和思考. 你无法集中注意力,记忆力也有问题, 思考, 甚至改变你的说话方式.
  • 食欲或睡眠模式的改变. 在失眠, 睡太多, 突然改变你的食量, or relying more and more on drugs and alcohol to cope.
  • 心情的变化. 你感到绝望, 无助的, 紧张, or experience uncharacteristic 情绪 swings or even suicidal thoughts.
  • 对活动失去兴趣. You lose interest in aspects of your 工作 that you previously enjoyed, 放弃你曾经热爱的爱好, 或者从友谊和社会活动中退出. 这可能伴随着明显的冷漠.
  • 恐惧或紧张. You feel overly suspicious of others at 工作 or socially, or feel suddenly nervous and 恐惧ful in certain situations.
  • 更加敏感. You’re more sensitive to sights and sounds and try to avoid any situations that are over-stimulating.
  • 不正常的行为. 你感觉与周围环境脱节, 表现出不寻常的, 不寻常的, 或者失控的行为, 看到或听到不真实的东西.
  • 无法解释的疼痛, 比如头痛、胃不舒服或肌肉疼痛.

处理与工作有关的心理健康问题

当压力, 骚扰, or mental health problems negatively affect your performance, 的关系, 以及工作中的身体机能, 你可能会感到孤立, 不知所措, 挣扎着知道该去哪里. 但你绝不是一个人.

Recent surveys suggest that about one in five US adults report having a mental health issue each year while 70% experience symptoms of stress. 而大多数人从不寻求帮助, there are steps you can take today to start improving how you feel.

压力

While some stress can provide you with the focus and energy to meet deadlines and challenges at 工作, too much can take a toll on your health and productivity. When you’re constantly worried about being laid off, 工作时间越来越长, 或者感觉在工作中一直有压力, 你的情绪, 个人生活, 工作表现也会受到影响.

无论你现在的工作压力有多大, 有很多方法可以缓解压力, 降低压力水平, 重新获得一种控制感. 读 工作压力.

抑郁症

It’s normal to feel down or unhappy every now and then, 但感觉自己就像在黑洞里, 绝望和无助, 可能是抑郁的征兆. 当你情绪低落的时候, 你感到如此无精打采和绝望,这影响了你的工作能力, 吃, 睡眠, 在生活中寻找乐趣. Just getting out of bed in the morning can seem overwhelming.

但尽管目前的情况看起来很凄凉, 你可以采取一些措施来改善你的心情, 克服悲伤和绝望的情绪, 重拾希望. 读 应对大萧条.

焦虑

和压力一样,并非所有的焦虑都是不好的. 在可控的剂量, 它可以帮助你面对挑战, 比如工作面试或重要的演讲. 但当你被持续的担忧困扰时, 消极的想法, 或者一种压倒性的紧张或恐慌感, 它会影响你的日常生活和工作能力. 焦虑会耗尽你的情感, 让你感到紧张和不安, 并引发失眠, 头痛, 胃痛, 和肌肉紧张.

不管你面临的是哪种焦虑障碍, there are ways to turn off 焦虑 thoughts and find calm again. 读: 焦虑障碍和焦虑发作.

欺负和骚扰

当欺负, 滥用, 或者在工作场所发生骚扰, 它会创造一个充满敌意的环境,对你的情绪产生破坏性的影响, 前景, 以及整体的健康和幸福. Whether you’re being targeted because of your gender, 比赛, 性取向, 或宗教, 你可能在不断的恐惧中工作, feel compelled to take time off sick whenever possible, 甚至想要放弃, 不管经济后果如何.

While you may feel powerless to put a stop to bullying and 骚扰, especially when the perpetrator is a boss or high-performing colleague, 你可以采取一些措施来重新获得控制权. 记录消极行为, seek support from any co工作ers who’ve witnessed it, 然后去找一个比欺凌者或施虐者级别更高的人——不管是经理, 导演, 或有同情心的人力资源人员. 读: 在工作中欺负.

你是在自我治疗吗?

当紧张的感觉, 恐惧, 绝望, 或者悲伤开始影响你的工作生活, 想要自己找到最简单的解决办法,往往是很诱人的. For many of us, that means taking a pill or pouring a drink. 而自我治疗有时可以提供一些短期的缓解, 随着时间的推移,这只会带来更多的困难.

你是否转向酒精, 非法毒品, 处方药, 甚至用食物来改变你的感觉, 有更健康和更有效的方法来改善你的情绪和处理你的问题. 读: 自我治疗抑郁、焦虑和压力.

如何在工作中照顾好自己的心理健康

When you’re 感觉 强调 and 不知所措 by the demands of 工作, taking time away—using personal or sick days or taking some vacation time—can help you to 充电 and 避免过度疲劳. 然而, 如果你有持续的心理健康问题, 比如抑郁或焦虑, 你需要的不仅仅是几天的休息.

Caring for your mental health in the 工作place isn’t just about dealing with immediate mental health problems, 要么. 它也是关于促进幸福的. Even if you’re not facing a mental health challenge right now, 采取措施照顾自己的情绪健康可以帮助你建立适应能力, 提高你的工作表现, 并为你们提供更好地应对未来不确定性和挑战的工具. 以下建议可以帮助你:

关掉. 无论你是在现场工作还是远程工作,保持工作与生活的平衡都很重要. That means taking regular breaks throughout the day and switching off your screens when the 工作 day is over. Instead of making yourself available 24/7 to respond to 工作 calls, 电子邮件, 或其他信息, 重要的是要关注朋友和家人,花时间放松, 充电, 享受你自己.

练习放松技巧. 放松和充电需要的不仅仅是坐在电视机前的沙发上发呆. To reduce the damaging effects of stress and protect your mental health, you need to activate your body’s relaxation response. 这可以通过 练习放松技巧 such as meditation, deep br吃hing, rhythmic exercise, or yoga.

照顾好自己. 得到足够的 高质量的夜间睡眠,吃一个 健康、营养的饮食, 定期的锻炼 can make a huge difference to your mental health—at 工作 and beyond. These are also aspects of your life that you have more control over than many things in your 工作place. The more effort you put into self-care, the better you’ll feel.

找到工作的意义和目的. Even if you don’t love your job, you can still find ways to 获得意义和目的 从你的工作中. 试着把注意力放在你的工作如何帮助别人上, 例如, 提供重要的产品或服务, 或者你和同事之间的关系. Looking for opportunities to get more training or take job-related classes can also help you to find more meaning in your 工作.

[阅读:找到合适的职业]

试着联系和合作. 作为人类,世界杯足彩app渴望联系. 与你的同事发展相互支持的关系,作为一个团队合作,和 很开心在一起 能帮助缓解工作压力,改善你的情绪吗. 如果你和同事关系不太好, 努力在项目上共享资源, 工作得更近, be more social during breaks and outside the 工作place.

建立弹性. 你的适应力就越大, the better you’re able to tolerate the 感觉s of stress, 焦虑, 绝望 that can be generated by problems at 工作. 提高应变能力 can also help you from setbacks in your 职业生涯 or 个人生活 and help you maintain a positive 前景. 而不是大男子气概, 弹性是需要努力建立和维护的东西.

心理健康和在家工作

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, more and more of us have found ourselves 工作ing from home. 虽然不需要每天的通勤和相关的费用是令人满意的, there are still plenty of drawbacks to 工作ing remotely that can take a toll on your mental health.

许多人在工作场所感到孤立, 与同事之间的支持和社交隔绝. 每天在同一个地方生活和工作,压力会非常大, 尤其是在空间狭小的情况下, 你在照顾小孩, or you have other family members also 工作ing from home. 无休止的连续虚拟会议, 长工作时间, 感觉 the need to always be “on” can also be a drain on your time, 情绪, 和前景.

Whether you’re 工作ing from home full-time or just intermittently, there are steps you can take to ensure you protect your mental health and make it a more productive and enjoyable experience.

保持有规律的工作. 当你在家工作的时候, 在工作时间和家庭时间之间建立一个界限是非常困难的, so many people find themselves 工作er much longer hours. 维持一种正常的感觉, 尽量保持有规律的办公时间, 每天在同一时间开始和结束. Some people find it useful to go for a walk before starting 工作 in the morning and then again after finishing 工作 in the evening. It can help you mentally switch from 工作 to home mode and vice versa.

安排休息和设定界限. 只是因为你的办公桌在家里,并不意味着你必须总是有空. Set aside time to take a break from your screens and have lunch, 例如, then turn off your phone and computer when you’re done for the day. 试着在虚拟会议之间留出时间,这样他们就不会感到压力山大.

建立一个专门的工作空间. 即使你没有一个单独的房间可以用作家庭办公室, try to reserve a space that you can use just for 工作, 而不是在厨房的桌子上工作, 例如. 你会发现保持你的日常生活,把你的工作和家庭生活分开会更容易.

寻找外出工作的机会. 如果你想和其他人在一起, 试着在咖啡店或图书馆工作, 或者租一个共同工作的空间.

安排与同事面对面的时间. 来对抗孤立感, arrange regular meetings or social events where you can see your colleagues in-person and catch-up. 如果你自由, 在社交媒体上联系其他自由职业者,安排面对面的聚会.

如何与雇主谈论心理健康问题

If your emotional state is impacting your ability to perform at 工作, 你可能会决定是时候和你的老板谈谈了, especially if it’s your 工作 environment that’s causing the problem. 然而, 世界杯足彩app中的许多人不愿与他人谈论自己的心理健康是可以理解的, 尤其是世界杯足彩app的主管或雇主. You may 恐惧 that you’ll be negatively judged, your reputation will suffer, or your 职业生涯 damaged.

There also remains a stigma attached to mental health that can make it difficult to open up in the same way you would about a physical health issue. 有些人认为有压力, 抑郁, 焦虑, 或者因为某种性格缺陷而受到创伤, 让人羞愧的事. But the truth is that 80% of us will experience a diagnosable mental health condition at some point in our lives. So, 不管你意识到没有, 很有可能你的老板已经或将要经历精神健康问题, 要么 directly themselves or in someone very close to them.

这一点从来没有比现在更真实. 新冠肺炎大流行带来的压力和动荡导致心理健康问题激增. 世界杯足彩app中很少有人毫发无损. 然而,, 值得庆幸的是, 越来越多的人觉得可以分享他们的经历, helping to reduce the stigma of what are normal human conditions.

和老板谈话

精神健康和药物滥用每年给公司造成数十亿美元的损失, so it’s in your employer’s interest to listen and take steps to improve the 工作place whenever they can.

你在多大程度上选择披露,将在很大程度上取决于你雇主的个性, 你和他们之间的信任程度, 和你自己的舒适程度. If it’s your boss who’s causing the problem—bullying, 骚扰, or cr吃ing a dysfunctional environment—you’ll want to approach his superior or someone in your company’s HR department.

它还可以帮助:

选择合适的时间交谈. Find a quiet time at 工作 to approach your employer, when they’re more likely to be calm and not 强调. 那可能是在这周末, 例如, 当一切都结束的时候, rather than during peak hours or ahead of a pressing deadline. 试着安排一个双方都不受干扰、不太可能被打扰的时间.

(阅读:有效的沟通)

关注你的工作表现. 而不是简单地列出你所有的抱怨, 向你的老板解释具体情况是如何影响你的工作能力的. 例如, you could explain how sudden changes in your duties and responsibilities have cr吃ed high levels of stress or exacerbated your panic attacks.

尽可能提供具体的解决方案. 建议老板可以做出的改变来帮助你提高工作表现. 例如, if you need to see your therapist without arriving late for 工作, asking for flexible hours or to 工作 at home on certain days of the week could be a practical solution. Or, 如果你因为人手不足而过度工作, 建议哪些低优先级的任务你可以跳过或委派,以确保你不会落后.

记住,人多力量大. 如果有同事也受到欺负, 骚扰, 或者在消极的环境中受苦, approaching your employer as a group can add weight to your voice.

了解你的雇主. 对世界杯足彩app所有人来说,这是一个压力很大、要求很高的时期. The pandemic has changed much about how we 工作 and the “new normal” seems to be changing all the time. So, don’t expect your boss to immediately have all the answers. Allow them the chance to think about what you’ve told them, but make sure you set a time for a follow-up session.

了解你的合法权利

这取决于你的国家或居住州, you may have a legal right to receive reasonable accommodations to help you fulfill your duties at 工作. While it’s always better to adopt a conciliatory rather than confrontational tone with your employer, 调查你的法律立场可以为你提出的任何合理要求增加权威. See the “得到更多的帮助” section below for 资源.

最近更新:2021年10月

得到更多的帮助

在美国的压力 (PDF) – 2021 survey by the American Psychological Association. (APA)

工作场所的心理健康 (PDF) – The 工作-related effects of mental health disorders and stress—and what you can do about them. (CDC)

雇主资源 -工具, 资源, 以及为雇主提供促进和支持员工心理健康的信息. (工作场所心理健康中心)

抑郁症、创伤后应激障碍、 & Other 心理健康 Conditions in the 工作place: Your Legal Rights -美国的法律建议.S. 来自平等就业机会委员会. (USEEOC)

支持工作中的心理健康 – Legal advice in the UK on dealing with 工作place mental health. (留住)

帮助热线,

在美国.S.: 调用 NAMI热线 at 1-.

UK: 调用 介意Infoline 在0或 SANEline at 07.

澳大利亚: 调用 理智的热线 at 1.

新西兰: 调用 健康line at 0.

加拿大: 调用 加拿大健康起来 at 1-.

印度: 调用 心理健康服务热线 在1或 Vandrevala基金会帮助热线 at 1.