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压力

压力管理

虽然你似乎对工作和家庭中的压力无能为力, 你可以采取一些措施来缓解压力,重新获得控制权.

坐在沙发上的年轻女子面带微笑,双手抱在脑后,斜靠在椅背上

管理压力的重要性

If you’re living with high levels of 压力, you’re putting your entire well-being at risk. 压力会破坏你的情绪平衡,也会破坏你的身体健康. 它限制了你清晰思考、有效运作和享受生活的能力. It may seem like there’s nothing you can do about 压力. 账单不会停止的, 一天中永远不会有更多的时间, 你的工作和家庭责任总是要求很高. 但 you have a lot more control than you might think.

有效的压力管理可以帮助你打破压力对你生活的束缚, 这样你就能更快乐, 更健康的, 和更有效率. The ultimate goal is a balanced life, with time for work, relationships, relaxation, and fun—and the 弹性 to hold up under pressure and meet challenges head on. 但是压力管理并不是万能的. 这就是为什么实验并找出最适合你的方法是很重要的. The following 压力 management tips can help you do that.

负担得起的压力在线疗法

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Tip 1: Identify the sources of 压力 in your life

压力管理从识别生活中压力的来源开始. 这并不像听起来那么简单. While it’s easy to identify major 压力ors such as changing jobs, 移动, 或者正在经历离婚, pinpointing the sources of chronic 压力 can be more complicated. It’s all too easy to overlook how your own thoughts, 感情, and behaviors contribute to your everyday 压力 levels.

确定, you may know that you’re constantly worried about work deadlines, 但也许是你的拖延症, 而不是实际的工作要求, 这就是造成压力的原因.

To identify your true sources of 压力, look closely at your habits, attitude, and excuses:

  • Do you explain away 压力 as temporary (“I just have a million things going on 现在”) even though you can’t remember the last time you took a breather?
  • Do you define 压力 as an integral part of your work or home life (“Things are always crazy around here”) or as a part of your personality (“I have a lot of nervous energy, 这就是”)?
  • Do you blame your 压力 on other people or outside events, 或者把它视为完全正常和普通的?

直到你对自己在创造或维护这个角色中所扮演的角色承担责任, your 压力 level will remain outside your control.

开始写压力日记

A 压力 journal can help you identify the regular 压力ors in your life and the way you deal with them. Each time you feel 强调, keep track of it in your journal or use a 压力 tracker on your phone. 每天写日志可以让你看到模式和常见的主题. 写下来:

  • What caused your 压力 (make a guess if you’re unsure).
  • 你的身体和精神上感觉如何.
  • 你是如何回应的.
  • 你为了让自己好受点所做的一切.

技巧2:练习压力管理的四个A

While 压力 is an automatic response from your nervous system, some 压力ors arise at predictable times: your commute to work, 和老板开会, 或家庭聚会, 例如. 当处理这些可预测的压力时, you can either change the situation or change your reaction. When deciding which option to choose in any given scenario, 想到四个A是有帮助的:避免, 改变, 适应, 或接受.

四个A:避免,改变,适应 & 接受
避免不必要的压力
逃避需要解决的压力状况是不健康的, but you may be surprised by the number of 压力ors in your life that you can eliminate.
学会说“不”.” 知道自己的极限并坚持下去. 无论是在你的个人生活还是职业生活中, taking on more than you can handle is a surefire recipe for 压力. Distinguish between the “shoulds” and the “musts” and, when possible, say “no” to taking on too much.
避开让你感到压力的人. If someone consistently causes 压力 in your life, limit the amount of time you spend with that person, 或者结束这段关系.
控制你的环境. If the evening news makes you anxious, turn off the TV. If traffic makes you tense, take a longer but less-traveled route. 如果去市场是一件令人不愉快的琐事,那就在网上购物吧.
减少你的待办事项清单. Analyze your schedule, responsibilities, and daily tasks. 如果你有太多事要做, drop tasks that aren’t truly necessary to the bottom of the list or eliminate them entirely.
改变这种情况
If you can’t avoid a 压力ful situation, try to 改变 it. 通常,这包括改变你在日常生活中沟通和操作的方式.
Express your 感情 instead of bottling them up. 如果某事或某人打扰你, 要更自信,以开放和尊重的方式表达你的担忧. 如果你要准备考试而你健谈的室友刚回家, say up front that you only have five minutes to talk. 如果你不说出自己的感受,怨恨就会滋生,压力也会增加.
愿意妥协. 当你要求别人改变他们的行为时,要心甘情愿地去做. If you both are willing to bend at least a little, you’ll have a good chance of finding a happy middle ground.
制定一个平衡的时间表. 只工作不玩耍会使人精疲力竭. Try to find a balance between work and family life, 社会活动和个人追求, 日常职责和停机时间.
适应压力
If you can’t change the 压力or, change yourself. You can 适应 to 压力ful situations and regain your sense of control by changing your expectations and attitude.
重新定义问题. Try to view 压力ful situations from a more positive perspective. 而不是对交通堵塞大发雷霆, look at it as an opportunity to pause and regroup, 收听你最喜欢的广播电台, 或者享受一些独处的时间.
着眼大局. 对有压力的情况要有远见. Ask yourself how important it will be in the long run. 一个月后会有影响吗? 一年? 真的值得为此烦恼吗? If the answer is no, focus your time and energy elsewhere.
调整你的标准. Perfectionism is a major source of avoidable 压力. Stop setting yourself up for failure by demanding perfection. Set reasonable standards for yourself and others, and learn to be okay with “good enough.”
练习感恩. 当压力让你沮丧的时候, 花点时间回想一下生活中你欣赏的所有事物, 包括你自己积极的品质和天赋. This simple strategy can help you keep things in perspective.
接受那些你无法改变的事情
有些压力来源是不可避免的. 你不能阻止或改变压力,比如所爱的人的死亡, 一个严重的疾病, 或者全国性的衰退. 在这种情况下,应对压力的最好方法就是接受事情本来的样子. 接受可能是困难的, 但从长远来看, it’s easier than railing against a situation you can’t change.
不要试图控制无法控制的事情. 生活中有很多事情是世界杯足彩app无法控制的,尤其是其他人的行为. 而不是压力, 把注意力集中在你可以控制的事情上,比如你选择如何应对问题.
寻找好的一面. When facing major challenges, try to look at them as opportunities for personal growth. If your own poor choices contributed to a 压力ful situation, 反思他们并从错误中学习.
学会原谅. 接受世界杯足彩app生活在一个不完美的世界,人们会犯错的事实. 放下愤怒和怨恨. Free yourself from negative energy by forgiving and 移动 on.
分享你的感受. Expressing what you’re going through can be very cathartic, 即使你无法改变这种紧张的局面. Talk to a trusted friend or make an appointment with a therapist.

小贴士3:行动起来

When you’re 强调, the last thing you probably feel like doing is getting up and exercising. 但 体育活动 is a huge 压力 reliever—and you don’t have to be an athlete or spend hours in a gym to experience the benefits. 锻炼 releases endorphins that make you feel good, 同时,它也可以帮助你从日常的烦恼中解脱出来.

虽然你会从30分钟或更长时间的定期锻炼中得到最大的好处, it’s okay to build up your fitness level gradually. Even very small activities can add up over the course of a day. 第一步是站起来行动起来. 这里有一些简单的方法可以让你把锻炼纳入日常计划:

  • 放点音乐,四处跳舞.
  • 把你的 遛狗.
  • 步行或骑车去杂货店.
  • Use the stairs at home or work rather than an elevator.
  • 把车停在停车场最远的地方,然后步行走完剩下的路.
  • 与一名运动伙伴组成一组,在锻炼时互相鼓励.
  • Play ping-pong or an activity-based video game with your kids.

The 压力-busting magic of mindful rhythmic exercise

而几乎任何形式的体育活动都可以帮助消除紧张和压力, 有节奏的活动尤其有效. Good choices include walking, running, swimming, dancing, cycling, tai chi, and aerobics. 但 whatever you choose, make sure it’s something you enjoy so you’re more likely to stick with it.

当你锻炼, make a conscious effort to pay attention to your body and the physical (and sometimes emotional) sensations you experience as you’re 移动. Focus on coordinating your breathing with your movements, 例如, or notice how the air or sunlight feels on your skin. Adding this mindfulness element will help you break out of the cycle of negative thoughts that often accompanies overwhelming 压力.

技巧4:与他人联系

年轻女子双手捂着脸

There is nothing more calming than spending quality time with another human being who makes you feel safe and understood. 事实上, face-to-face interaction triggers a cascade of hormones that counteracts the body’s defensive “fight-or-flight” response. It’s nature’s natural 压力 reliever (as an added bonus, 它还有助于避免抑郁和焦虑). 因此,要注意定期与家人和朋友联系——而且是面对面的.

记住,和你交谈的人不一定能够缓解你的压力. 他们只需要成为好的倾听者. And try not to let worries about looking weak or being a burden keep you from opening up. The people who care about you will be flattered by your trust. 它只会加强你们之间的联系.

当然, it’s not always realistic to have a pal close by to lean on when you feel overwhelmed by 压力, 但是通过建立和维护一个 亲密的朋友圈 you can improve your resiliency to life’s 压力ors.

建立人际关系的小贴士

  1. 6 .在工作中联系同事.
  2. 通过帮助别人 志愿服务.
  3. 和朋友一起吃午饭或喝咖啡.
  4. 让你爱的人定期与你联系.
  5. 陪某人去看电影或听音乐会.
  6. 给老朋友打电话或发邮件.
  7. 出去散散步 和一个伙伴一起锻炼.
  8. 每周安排一次晚餐约会.
  9. Meet new people by taking a class or joining a club.
  10. Confide in a clergy member, teacher, or sports coach.

小贴士5:腾出时间娱乐和放松

Beyond a take-charge approach and a positive attitude, you can reduce 压力 in your life by carving out “me” time. Don’t get so caught up in the hustle and bustle of life that you forget to take care of your own needs. 培养自己是必要的,而不是奢侈的. If you regularly make time for fun and relaxation, you’ll be in a better place to handle life’s 压力ors.

留出休闲时间. Include rest and relaxation in your daily schedule. 不要让其他义务侵占. This is your time to take a break from all responsibilities and recharge your batteries.

每天做一些你喜欢的事情. Make time for leisure activities that bring you joy, 无论是看星星, 弹钢琴, 或者在你的自行车上工作.

保持你的幽默感. 这包括自嘲的能力. 笑的行为 通过多种方式帮助你的身体对抗压力.

进行放松练习. 放松技巧,如瑜伽、冥想和深呼吸可以激活大脑 身体的放松反应, a state of restfulness that is the opposite of the fight or flight or mobilization 压力 response. 当你学习和练习这些技巧的时候, your 压力 levels will decrease and your mind and body will become calm and centered.

技巧6:更好地管理你的时间

糟糕的时间管理会导致很多压力. 当你被拉伸得太瘦,跑在后面时,你很难保持冷静和专注. +, you’ll be tempted to avoid or cut back on all the healthy things you should be doing to keep 压力 in check, 比如社交和充足的睡眠. 好消息是:你可以做一些事情来实现更健康的工作与生活的平衡.

不要过量使用自己. 不要把事情排得没完没了,或者试图在一天内安排太多的事情. All too often, we underestimate how long things will take.

优先级的任务. 把你要做的事情列一个清单,然后按重要程度来处理它们. 优先级高的事情先做吗. If you have something particularly unpleasant or 压力ful to do, get it over with early. The rest of your day will be more pleasant as a result.

把项目分成小步骤. If a large project seems overwhelming, make a step-by-step plan. 一次专注于一个可管理的步骤,而不是一次处理所有的事情.

委托责任. 无论是在家里,在学校,还是在工作中,你都不必自己做所有的事情. If other people can take care of the task, why not let them? Let go of the desire to control or oversee every little step. You’ll be letting go of unnecessary 压力 in the process.

Tip 7: Maintain balance with a healthy lifestyle

除了定期锻炼, there are other healthy lifestyle choices that can increase your resistance to 压力.

健康饮食. Well-nourished bodies are better prepared to cope with 压力, so be mindful of what you eat. Start your day right with breakfast, and keep your energy up and your mind clear with 均衡营养的三餐 在一天中.

减少咖啡因和糖. The temporary “highs” caffeine and sugar provide often end with a crash in mood and energy. By reducing the amount of coffee, soft drinks, chocolate, and 在你的饮食中加入糖零食, you’ll feel more relaxed and you’ll sleep better.

避免酒精、香烟和毒品. 用酒精或药物自我治疗 或许可以很容易地摆脱压力,但这种缓解只是暂时的. Don’t avoid or mask the issue at hand; deal with problems head on and with a clear mind.

得到足够的睡眠. 足够的睡眠 给你的大脑和身体提供能量. Feeling tired will increase your 压力 because it may cause you to think irrationally.

提示8:学会在当下缓解压力

当你被早晨的通勤弄得疲惫不堪时, 困在一个充满压力的工作会议上, 或者和你的配偶又吵了一架, 你需要一种方法来控制你的压力水平 现在. 这就是快速缓解压力的方法.

The fastest way to reduce 压力 is by taking a deep breath and using your senses—what you see, 听到, 味道, 还有触摸,或者通过舒缓的动作. 通过查看最喜欢的照片, 闻到一种特定的气味, 听最喜欢的音乐, 嚼口香糖, 或者抱着宠物, 例如, 你可以很快放松下来,集中精力.

当然,并不是每个人对每种感官体验的反应都是一样的. 的关键 快速缓解压力 是去试验和发现最适合你的独特感官体验吗.

最近更新:2021年11月

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得到更多的帮助

压力管理 学会管理你的压力. (美国心脏协会)

压力管理: Enhance Your Well-Being by Reducing 压力 and Building Resilience – Special 健康 Report from 哈佛大学 Medical School. (哈佛健康)

忍受痛苦 -工作簿和信息表,帮助你管理痛苦的感觉. (临床干预中心)

建立你的韧性 -学习如何在面对压力和困难时增强自己的适应力. (美国心理协会)

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