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你每晚需要什么睡眠? What does 睡眠 do for your health? By understanding your body’s needs, 你可以改善你的睡眠时间表和你清醒时的生活质量.

Young businessman works late at night, he is tired


你晚上的睡眠质量直接影响你的心理和身体健康,以及你白天的感觉. 睡眠影响工作效率, 情感上的平衡, 大脑和心脏健康, 免疫功能, 创造力, 活力, 甚至你的体重. No other activity delivers so many benefits with so little effort!

When you’re scrambling to meet the demands of a busy schedule, 虽然, or just finding it hard to 睡眠 at night, getting by on less hours may seem like a good solution. But even minimal 睡眠 loss can take a substantial toll on your mood, 能源, 精神敏锐, 以及处理压力的能力. 长期的,长期的睡眠不足会对你的精神和身体健康造成严重的破坏.

睡眠 isn’t merely a time 当 your body shuts off. 当你休息, 你的大脑很忙, 监督生物维护,使你的身体运行在最佳状态, 为未来的一天做准备. Without enough hours of restorative 睡眠, 你不能工作了, 学习, 创建, and communicate at a level even close to your true potential. 经常忽视“服务”,你将走向精神和身体上的严重崩溃.

好消息是,你不必在健康和生产力之间做出选择. 通过解决任何睡眠问题,每天晚上腾出时间来获得你需要的睡眠, 你的能量, 效率, 整体健康水平也会提高. 事实上, 你可能会在白天完成更多的工作,而不是只睡一小会儿,努力工作更长时间.



事实: You may not be noticeably 睡眠y during the day, 但是,即使少睡一个小时也会影响你正确思考和快速反应的能力. 它还会损害心血管健康、能量和抵抗感染的能力.

Myth: Your body adjusts quickly to different 睡眠 schedules.

事实: Most people can reset their biological clock, but only by appropriately timed cues—and even then, by one or two hours per day at best. 因此, 在跨越几个时区或换到夜班工作后,可能需要一个多星期的时间来调整.

事实: The quantity of 睡眠 you get is important, sure, but it’s the 质量 of your 睡眠 that you really have to pay attention to. 有些人每晚睡8或9个小时,但当他们醒来时却感觉休息不好,因为他们的睡眠质量很差.
事实: Al虽然 this 睡眠ing pattern will help relieve part of a 睡眠 debt, it will not completely make up for the lack of 睡眠. 此外, 周末晚睡会影响你的睡眠-觉醒周期,所以周日晚上很难在合适的时间入睡,周一早上也很难早起.
来源: 健康睡眠指南, The National Institutes of 健康


你所能获得的睡眠时间和你身体机能最佳状态所需的睡眠时间有很大的不同. According to the National Institutes of 健康, the average adult 睡眠s less than seven hours per night. 在当今快节奏的社会里,六七个小时的睡眠听起来很不错. In reality, 虽然, it’s a recipe for 长期睡眠不足.


While 睡眠 requirements vary slightly from person to person, 大多数健康的成年人每晚需要7到9个小时的睡眠才能使身体机能处于最佳状态. 儿童和青少年需要更多. And despite the notion that our 睡眠 needs decrease with age, most older people still need at least seven hours of 睡眠. Since older adults often have trouble 睡眠ing this long at night, daytime naps can help fill in the gap.

新生儿至3个月大14 - 17小时11 - 19小时
4到11个月大12 - 15小时10 - 18小时
1到2岁11 - 14小时9 - 16小时
3到5岁10 - 13小时8 - 14小时
6到13岁9 - 11小时7 - 12小时
14到17岁8 - 10小时7 - 11小时
Young adults (18 to 25 years old)7 - 9小时6 - 11小时
成人(26 - 64岁)7 - 9小时6 - 10小时
老年人(65 +)7 - 8小时5 - 9小时

了解你是否满足了自己的睡眠需求的最好方法是评估你一天工作时的感觉. If you’re logging enough 睡眠 hours, you’ll feel energetic and alert all day long, from the moment you wake up until your regular bedtime.

Think six hours of 睡眠 is enough?

再想想. Researchers at the University of California, 旧金山, 发现一些人有一种基因,能让他们在每晚睡6小时的情况下身体机能良好. 然而,这种基因非常罕见,只出现在不到3%的人群中. For the other 97% of us, six hours doesn’t come close to cutting it.

The importance of 深度睡眠 and 快速眼动睡眠

重要的不仅仅是你花在睡眠上的时间,而是你的 质量 的小时. 如果你给了自己充足的睡眠时间,但早上起床还是很困难,或者一整天都保持清醒, you may not be spending enough time in the different stages of 睡眠.

[Read: 睡眠的科学: Stages and Cycles]

Each stage of 睡眠 in your 睡眠 cycle offers different benefits. 然而, 深度睡眠 (这段时间身体自我修复,为新的一天积累能量)和精神和情绪振奋 快速眼动睡眠 尤为重要. You can ensure you get more 深度睡眠 by avoiding alcohol, 尼古丁, and being woken during the night by noise or light. While improving your overall 睡眠 will increase 快速眼动睡眠, 你也可以尝试在早上多睡30分钟到一个小时, 当 快速眼动睡眠阶段 是长.

Signs that you’re not getting enough 睡眠

如果你每晚的睡眠时间少于8小时,那么你很有可能睡眠不足. 更重要的是,你可能不知道睡眠不足对你的影响有多大.

How is it possible to be 睡眠 deprived without knowing it? 大多数睡眠不足的迹象都比脸朝下倒在餐桌上要微妙得多.

[Read: 睡眠 Deprivation: Symptoms, Causes, and Effects]

此外, if you’ve made a habit of skimping on 睡眠, you may not even remember what it feels like to be truly wide-awake, 完全清醒, 全速运转. Maybe it feels normal to get 睡眠y 当 you’re in a boring meeting, struggling through the afternoon slump, 或者晚饭后打瞌睡, but the truth is that it’s only “normal” if you’re 睡眠 deprived.

You may be 睡眠 deprived if you…

  • Need an alarm clock in order to wake up on time.
  • 依靠贪睡按钮.
  • Have a hard time getting out of bed in the morning.
  • 下午感到无精打采.
  • Get 睡眠y in meetings, lectures, or warm rooms.
  • Get drowsy after heavy meals or 当 driving.
  • Need to nap to get through the day.
  • Fall a睡眠 while watching TV or relaxing in the evening.
  • Feel the need to 睡眠 in on weekends.
  • Fall a睡眠 within five minutes of going to bed.

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How to get the 睡眠 that you need

Whether you’re looking to resolve a 特定的睡眠问题, or just want to feel more productive, 思维敏捷, and emotionally balanced during the day, 用以下方法进行实验 睡眠技巧 看看哪个最适合你:

Rule out medical causes for your 睡眠 problems. 睡眠障碍可能是一种 symptom of a physical or mental health issue, or a side-effect of certain medications.

坚持有规律的睡眠时间. 每天按时睡觉和起床来支持你的生物钟, 包括周末.


定期锻炼. 有规律的锻炼 can improve the symptoms of many 睡眠 disorders and problems. 在大多数日子里,每天至少进行30分钟的运动,但不要太接近就寝时间.

Be smart about what you eat and drink. 咖啡因、酒精和 含糖食物 这些都会扰乱你的睡眠吗, 在临睡前吃得太多或喝太多的液体也会造成同样的后果.

寻求压力管理的帮助. 如果管理工作、家庭或学校的压力让你夜不能寐, 学习如何处理压力 in a productive way can help you 睡眠 better at night.

改善睡眠环境. 卧室保持黑暗、安静和凉爽,床只用于睡觉和做爱.

Develop a relaxing bedtime routine. Avoid screens, work, and stressful conversations late at night. 相反,洗个热水澡,在昏暗的灯光下看书,或者 practicing a relaxation technique 准备睡觉.

推迟令人担忧. 如果你晚上醒来感到焦虑,把它写在纸上 推迟令人担忧 about it until the next day 当 it will be easier to resolve.



改善睡眠 -让你睡个好觉. (哈佛大学 Medical School Special 健康 Report)

Brain Basics: Understanding 睡眠 -睡眠益处和睡眠需求, 做梦, 昼夜节律, 睡眠周期和阶段, 和睡眠障碍. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke)

健康睡眠指南 (PDF) -为什么睡眠很重要, 睡眠的阶段和周期, 睡眠不足的危害, and dealing with common 睡眠 problems. (美国国立卫生研究院)

世界杯足彩app到底需要多少睡眠? -研究不同年龄层的睡眠需求及样本. (国家睡眠基金会)

所有关于睡眠 -了解你的孩子是否有充足的睡眠,了解不同年龄段的睡眠需求. (儿童健康)资料

你需要多少睡眠? Details the most recent recommended 睡眠 times by age group. (伯克利健康)

Consequences of Insufficient 睡眠 -关于睡眠剥夺和长期缺乏睡眠的后果的文章和视频, 包括对驾驶的影响, 判断, 和疾病风险. (哈佛健康的睡眠)

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