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sleep

睡眠障碍和问题

Do you have trouble sleeping, 醒来时感到筋疲力尽, 或者在白天感到困倦? Here’s how to recognize the symptoms of a sleep disorder and get the treatment you need.

Woman, legs covered by comforter, sitting up in bed, clutching her knees, gazing out

什么是睡眠障碍或睡眠问题?

A sleep disorder is a condition that frequently impacts your ability to get enough quality sleep. Many of us occasionally 遇到困难睡觉. Usually it’s due to stress, travel, illness, or other temporary interruptions to your normal routine. 然而,如果你 regularly 晚上难以入睡, 醒来时感到筋疲力尽, 或者在白天感到困倦, 你可能患有睡眠障碍.

睡眠障碍导致的不仅仅是白天的困倦. 它们会对你的精神和身体健康造成严重的伤害, 包括你的情绪, energy, 以及处理压力的能力. 忽视睡眠问题和紊乱会导致体重增加, 车祸, 受损的工作表现, 内存问题, 和紧张关系. 如果你想感觉最好的话, stay healthy, 发挥你的潜力, 高质量的睡眠是必要的, not a luxury.

Frequently having trouble sleeping can be a frustrating and debilitating experience. 你晚上睡不好, which leaves you feeling dead-tired in the morning and whatever energy you have quickly drains throughout the day. But then, no matter how exhausted you feel at night, you still have trouble sleeping. 这样循环又开始了. 但你不必忍受睡眠问题. There are many things you can do to identify the underlying causes of your sleep disorder and improve your sleep, health, 和生活质量.

睡眠障碍的迹象和症状

每个人都会偶尔遇到睡眠问题, 所以,你如何判断你的困难是否只是一个小问题呢, 传递烦恼或者更严重的睡眠障碍的信号,或者 潜在的疾病?

Start by scrutinizing your symptoms, looking especially for the telltale daytime signs of 睡眠不足.

这是一种睡眠障碍吗?

Do you:

  1. 白天感到烦躁或困倦?
  2. 坐着不动、看电视或看书时很难保持清醒?
  3. 开车时打瞌睡或感觉很累?
  4. 有困难集中注意力?
  5. 经常被别人说你看起来很累?
  6. React slowly?
  7. 难以控制自己的情绪?
  8. 感觉自己几乎每天都要小睡一会儿?
  9. 需要含咖啡因的饮料来保持活力?

如果你正在经历 any 如果你经常出现上述症状,那么你可能患有睡眠障碍. 你回答“是”的越多,你就越有可能患有睡眠障碍.

常见睡眠障碍的类型

Insomnia

Insomnia, 无法入睡或晚上睡不好, 是由压力引起的吗, jet lag, 健康状况, 你服用的药物, 甚至是你喝的咖啡量. Insomnia can also be caused by other sleep disorders or mood disorders such as anxiety and depression.

不管你失眠的原因是什么, 改善睡眠卫生, 改变你的白天习惯, and learning to relax will help cure most cases of insomnia without relying on sleep specialists or turning to prescription or over-the-counter sleeping pills.

Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea is a common (and treatable) sleep disorder in which your breathing temporarily stops during sleep, 唤醒你经常. 如果你有睡眠呼吸暂停,你可能不记得这些醒来, 但你可能会在白天感到疲惫, 易怒和沮丧, 或者看到你的工作效率下降. 睡眠呼吸暂停是一种严重的、可能危及生命的睡眠障碍, 所以马上去看医生,学习如何帮助自己.

不宁腿综合征(RLS)

不宁腿综合征(RLS) is a sleep disorder that causes an almost irresistible urge to move your legs (or arms) at night. The urge to move occurs when you’re resting or lying down and is usually due to uncomfortable, tingly, aching, 或爬行的感觉. 有很多方法可以帮助控制和缓解症状, though, 包括你可以在家使用的自助疗法.

Narcolepsy

Narcolepsy 睡眠障碍是指白天过度、无法控制的困倦吗. It is caused by a dysfunction of the brain mechanism that controls sleeping and waking. 如果你有嗜睡症, 你可能会在谈话过程中“睡眠发作”, working, 甚至开车. 尽管目前还没有治愈方法, a combination of treatments can help control symptoms and enable you to enjoy many normal activities.

可负担得起的睡眠问题在线疗法

从BetterHelp的注册治疗师网络获得专业帮助.

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昼夜节律性睡眠障碍

We all have an internal biological clock that regulates our 24-hour sleep-wake cycle, 也被称为 昼夜节律. 光线是影响昼夜节律的主要线索. At night, 当光线变暗的时候, 你的大脑会触发褪黑激素的释放, 一种让你昏昏欲睡的荷尔蒙. When the sun comes up in the morning, the brain tells the body that it’s time to wake up.

当你的昼夜节律被打乱或打乱, 你可能会感到头晕, disoriented, 在不方便的时候昏昏欲睡. Circadian rhythms have been linked to a variety of sleeping problems and sleep disorders, 还有抑郁症, 双相情感障碍, and 季节性情绪失调 (冬季忧郁).

倒班工作睡眠障碍

倒班工作睡眠障碍 occurs when your work schedule and your biological clock are out of sync. 在世界杯足彩app这个24小时的社会里, 许多人要上夜班, 清晨的转变, 或旋转变化. 当你的身体告诉你该睡觉的时候,这些时间表强迫你工作, 当你的身体发出醒来的信号时再睡觉.

而有些人能比其他人更好地适应轮班工作的要求, 大多数轮班工人的睡眠质量比白天的人要差. As a result of 睡眠不足, you may struggle with sleepiness and mental lethargy on the job. 这会降低你的工作效率,让你有受伤的危险.

[阅读:睡眠不足:症状、原因和影响]

减少轮班工作对睡眠的影响:

  • 定期休息,尽量减少换班的频率.
  • 当改变转变, 要求晚一点换班, 而不是更早,因为它更容易调整时间向前, 而不是向后.
  • Naturally regulate your sleep-wake cycle by increasing light exposure at work (use bright lights) and limiting light exposure when it’s time to sleep. 避免看电视和电脑屏幕, 在你的卧室里使用遮光帘或厚重的窗帘来遮挡日光.
  • 考虑 melatonin 当你该睡觉的时候.

睡眠相位失调延迟

睡眠相位失调延迟 is a condition where your biological clock is significantly delayed. 因此,你比别人晚睡晚起. 这不仅仅是喜欢熬夜或做一个夜猫子, but rather a disorder that makes it difficult for you to keep normal hours—to make it to morning classes, 让孩子们按时上学, 或者保持一份朝九晚五的工作.

  • People with delayed sleep phase disorder are unable to get to sleep earlier than 2 to 6 a.m.不管他们有多努力.
  • 当被允许有自己的时间(比如在学校休息或假期)时, 他们有规律的睡眠时间表.
  • 睡眠相位失调延迟在青少年中最为常见, 许多青少年最终会摆脱它.
  • 对于那些继续与不同步的生物钟斗争的人, 光疗法和时间疗法等治疗方法会有所帮助. 要想了解更多,请预约你的医生或当地的睡眠诊所.

Jet lag

Jet lag is a temporary disruption in 昼夜节律 that occurs when you travel across time zones. Symptoms include daytime sleepiness, fatigue, headaches, stomach problems, and insomnia. Symptoms are more pronounced the longer the flight and flying east tends to cause worse jet lag than flying west.

In general, it usually takes one day per time zone crossed to adjust to the local time. So, 如果你从洛杉矶飞到纽约, 跨越三个时区, 你的时差应该会在三天内消失.

跟踪你的症状

The first step to overcoming a sleep disorder or problem is identifying and carefully tracking your symptoms and sleep patterns.

写睡眠日记

A sleep diary can pinpoint day and nighttime habits that may contribute to your problems at night. Keeping a record of your sleep patterns and problems will also prove helpful if you eventually need to see a sleep doctor.

你的睡眠日记应该包括:

  1. 你几点睡觉,几点醒来.
  2. 总睡眠时间和感知到的睡眠质量.
  3. 你醒着的时间和你所做的事情的记录(“起床, 喝了杯牛奶吗, 比如冥想).
  4. 食物的种类和数量, liquids, caffeine, 或者你睡前喝的酒, 以及消费次数.
  5. 睡觉前的感觉和情绪(快乐、悲伤、紧张、焦虑).
  6. 服用的任何药物,包括剂量和时间.

细节可能很重要, revealing how certain behaviors can be ruining your chance for a good night’s sleep. 记了一个星期的日记之后, for example, 当你晚上喝了不止一杯酒的时候,你可能会注意到这一点, 你在夜里醒来.

下载或列印帮助指南的睡眠日记(PDF).

睡眠障碍自助治疗

虽然一些睡眠障碍可能需要去看医生, 你可以自己改善很多睡眠问题.

改善白天的生活习惯. 不管你的睡眠问题, 坚持固定的睡眠时间, 要经常锻炼, 限制咖啡因的摄入量, alcohol, and nicotine, 从长远来看,管理压力将转化为更好的睡眠.

养成一个放松的就寝习惯 让你的身心都做好睡觉的准备. 确保你的卧室安静, dark, and cool, 避免在晚上吃太多的食物和过多的液体, 洗个热水澡, read, 或者听一些舒缓的音乐来放松自己, 睡前至少一个小时关掉屏幕.

晚上醒来的时候再睡一觉. Whether you have a sleep disorder or not, it’s normal to wake briefly during the night. 如果你睡不着的话, 试着把注意力集中在呼吸上, meditating, 或者练习另一种放松技巧. Make a note of anything that’s worrying you and resolve to postpone worrying about it until the next day when it will be easier to resolve.

什么时候叫医生

如果你尝试过各种自助疗法都没有成功, schedule an appointment with a sleep specialist or ask your family doctor for a referral to a sleep clinic, 特别是如果:

  • Your main sleep problem is daytime sleepiness and self-help hasn’t improved your symptoms.
  • 你或你的床伴在睡觉时喘气、窒息或停止呼吸.
  • You sometimes fall asleep at inappropriate times, such as while talking, walking, or eating.

向你的医生提供尽可能多的支持性信息, 包括你睡眠日记中的信息.

在睡眠诊所或中心会发生什么呢

专家会观察你的睡眠模式, brain waves, heart rate, 快速眼球运动和更多的监测设备附在你的身体. 睡觉的时候,身上连着一堆电线,这似乎很难, 大多数病人发现他们很快就习惯了.

如果有必要,睡眠专家将设计一个治疗方案. A sleep center can also provide you with equipment to monitor your activities (awake and asleep) at home.

最近更新:2020年10月

Get more help

改善睡眠 -让你睡个好觉. (哈佛医学院特别健康报告)

睡眠障碍综述 -常见睡眠障碍的症状和治疗. (哈佛医学院睡眠医学部)

睡眠问题 (PDF) -包括常见睡眠障碍的症状、原因和联系. (国家心肺血液研究所,国家卫生研究院)

儿童睡眠问题 -婴儿、幼儿和青少年常见的睡眠问题. (密歇根大学卫生系统)

找一个睡眠中心

In the U.S., use the 睡眠中心定位器 找个附近的睡眠中心. (美国睡眠医学学会)

In the UK, find 睡眠诊所、中心和专家. (英国健康中心)

In Canada, find a 睡眠诊所或治疗提供者. (加拿大社会睡眠)

In Australia, find a 睡眠诊所名单. (睡眠障碍澳大利亚)

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