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personality disorders


认识一个极度不信任和怀疑别人的人, 是谁的偏执狂扭曲了他们的世界观? 以下是如何识别产后抑郁症并帮助你所爱的人得到治疗的方法.

Older man looking out through slats in window blinds towards street warily, his jaw tense


Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a challenging mental health condition defined by mistrust and suspicion so intense that it interferes with thought patterns, behavior, and daily functioning. 患有产后抑郁症的人可能会对他人非常警惕, 时刻警惕有人试图威胁的迹象, mistreat, or deceive them. 无论他们的信仰多么毫无根据, 他们可能会反复质疑他们的忠诚, honesty, or trustworthiness of others. 当他们意识到自己受到了迫害, rejected, or slighted, 他们很可能会以愤怒的爆发作为回应, controlling behavior, 或者把责任推到别人身上.

The fearful, distrustful perceptions that accompany PPD can make forming and maintaining close relationships very difficult, 影响人们在家工作的能力, work, and school. 如果你的爱人患有偏执型人格障碍, 你可能会对他们扭曲的世界观感到沮丧, 被他们没完没了的指责弄得筋疲力尽, 或者被他们的敌意和固执打败了. It can seem like they’re able to find and exaggerate the negative aspects of any situation or conversation.

Professional treatment can help someone with paranoid personality disorder manage symptoms and improve their daily functioning. But due to the very nature of the disorder, most people with PPD don’t seek help. As far as they’re concerned, their fears are justified and any attempts to change how they think only confirms their suspicions that people are “out to get them” in some way.

Despite the severe challenges of dealing with someone with PPD, though, you’re not totally powerless. 你可以采取一些步骤来鼓励你爱的人寻求帮助, support their treatment, and establish firm boundaries to preserve your own mental health and wellbeing.


PPD often first appears in early adulthood and is more common in men than women. Research suggests it may be most prevalent in those with a family history of schizophrenia. Someone with paranoid personality disorder doesn’t see their suspicious behavior as unusual or unwarranted. Rather, they see it as defending themselves against the bad intentions and deceptive, 周围人不值得信任的行为.

Common PPD symptoms include:

  1. Suspecting, without justification, that others are trying to exploit, harm, or deceive them.
  2. Obsessing on the lack of loyalty or trustworthiness of family, friends, and acquaintances.
  3. Refusing to confide in people for fear that any information they divulge will be used against them, 经常导致他们与他人隔绝.
  4. Interpreting hidden, malicious meanings in innocent gestures, events, or conversations.
  5. 对感知到的侮辱过于敏感, criticism, or slights, 迅速做出判断并怀恨在心.
  6. Responding to imagined attacks on their character with anger, hostility, or controlling behavior.
  7. Repeatedly suspecting, without basis, their romantic partner or spouse of infidelity.

尽管它是最常见的 personality disorders, paranoid personality disorder can be difficult to detect until symptoms progress from mild to more severe. After all, 世界杯足彩app大多数人都表现出不信任, suspicious, or hostile ways at some point in our lives without warranting a diagnosis of PPD.

Spotting the signs of paranoid personality disorder can be further complicated as it often co-occurs with another mental health problem, 例如焦虑症(通常 social anxiety), 强迫症 (OCD), substance abuse, or depression.

Diagnosing PPD

为了确诊为偏执型人格障碍, a mental health provider will look for the presence of at least four of the above symptoms. They will also want to rule out paranoia stemming from a psychotic episode linked to another condition, such as bipolar disorder、精神分裂症或伴有精神病的抑郁症.

If you recognize the symptoms of paranoid personality disorder in someone you care about, it’s important to remember that you can’t fix them or force them into treatment. You can, however, encourage them to seek professional help and support them through recovery.

Treatment for PPD

Treatment for paranoid personality disorder largely focuses on psychotherapy. A therapist can help your loved one develop skills for building empathy and trust, 改善沟通和关系, 更好地应对产后抑郁症状. Since the presence of others may fuel paranoid thoughts and anxious behavior, your loved one is more likely to benefit from individual rather than group therapy.

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can help someone with paranoid personality disorder recognize their destructive beliefs and thought patterns.
  • 通过改变这些信念对他们行为的影响, CBT can help reduce paranoia and improve how well your loved one interacts with others.
  • CBT can also help them learn better ways to deal with their emotions, beyond lashing out at others.

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Obstacles to treatment

The first major challenge is for the person with paranoid personality disorder to recognize there’s something disordered in their thinking and willingly embrace the need for treatment. Trying to force someone with PPD into seeking help will often backfire, adding to their resistance and fueling their paranoia that people are conspiring against them.

Another obstacle to treatment is overcoming the person with PPD’s suspicion and mistrust of those trying to help them, including the therapist. As in all relationships, trust is a major component of an effective therapist-client connection. 如果你爱的人怀疑治疗师的动机, 担心透露个人信息, 或者不愿意向他们吐露心声, 治疗不太可能成功.

Finding the right therapist for any mental health condition can often take time and effort—and that’s particularly true of paranoid personality disorder. The person with PPD needs to feel that they are working in collaboration with a therapist rather than having treatment forced upon them. It may take multiple attempts to find a therapist who’s a good fit and may require a long-term program of treatment to continually manage the symptoms of PPD.


There’s no medication specifically designed to treat paranoid personality disorder, although anti-psychotic drugs may be used to treat severe symptoms of paranoia. Other medications may also be prescribed to help manage related conditions such as anxiety or depression.

虽然这些可能是有益的结合治疗, 许多患有产后抑郁症的人都怀疑服用药物, 特别是如果好处不是立即显现的话.

How PPD affects relationships

If you have a relationship with someone with paranoid personality disorder you already know how stressful and emotionally turbulent it can be. 不管你是在和配偶打交道, partner, or family member, the suspicion, finger-pointing, and twisting of your words to mean something else can take a heavy toll. The verbal insults, 对自己的感情缺乏敏感度, and stubborn belief that they’re always right can make you feel like you’re walking on eggshells around them. And their jealousy and controlling behavior can make it difficult for you to maintain other relationships and social ties, 让你感到孤立和孤独.

You probably feel like the person with PPD doesn’t ever see you for who you really are. They’re so guarded about their feelings and paranoid about revealing anything personal about themselves, 很难有亲近的感觉.

In healthy relationships, trust tends to deepen over time as two people get to know each other better. But in a relationship with someone with paranoid personality disorder, the opposite often occurs. 你们在一起的时间越长, the less the person with PPD trusts you and the more suspicious of you they become.

然而,这很容易让人不知所措或失去希望, it is possible to stabilize your relationship by encouraging your loved one to get treatment and taking steps to establish healthy boundaries.


一个患有产后抑郁症的人的行为是多么伤人,多么令人困惑, try to remember that your loved one’s paranoid beliefs and disordered thinking stem from fear. 即使他们的信念可能完全没有根据, the fear, anxiety, 他们所经历的痛苦是非常真实的.

Recognize their pain. While you don’t need to agree with your loved one’s groundless beliefs, you can recognize and offer comfort for the feelings that are fueling these beliefs. Acknowledging their pain can help them feel more secure and diffuse their anger and hostility.

不要为他们错误的信念争论 or instantly dismiss them. A person with PPD misinterprets events as threatening and trying to argue rationally with them will only reinforce their belief that you’re out to deceive them. Instead, respect their beliefs but focus on the fears behind their claims. 开诚布公地谈论他们的感受, 而不去证实他们偏执的想法, 可以帮助减轻他们的压力和焦虑吗.

Set boundaries. 不管你爱的人有多痛苦, 这并不代表他们就可以拿你出气. Setting clear boundaries can help the person with PPD see the damaging effects of their behavior, 这反过来又会鼓励他们寻求治疗. For example, you could make it clear that if they accuse you of cheating or prevent you from seeing friends, 直到他们开始治疗,你才能离开. Make the rules and consequences clear—but only if you’re prepared to follow through with them.

Simplify how you communicate. Try to use clear, unambiguous language to reduce the chance of your loved one misinterpreting what you’re saying. If your loved one starts to twist your words, try to offer clarification without becoming defensive.

Encourage exercise. Regular physical activity 释放内啡肽,可以缓解紧张, boost your loved one’s mood, 帮助控制压力症状, anxiety, and depression. Adding a mindfulness element—really focusing on how the body feels while exercising—may also help your loved one interrupt the flow of negative thoughts running through their head.

Promote relaxation. People with paranoid personality disorder often have difficulty relaxing. 你可以通过鼓励一个常客来帮助他们 relaxation practice such as yoga or meditation.

Taking care of yourself

Being in a relationship with someone who has paranoid personality disorder requires compassion, patience, and lots of understanding. But if you’re not careful, it can also be incredibly draining and take over your life. Your loved one’s pessimism can make the world seem like a dark and negative place, so it’s vital you take steps to bolster your own mood and self-esteem.

Maintain other relationships. Your loved one’s paranoid personality disorder and associated controlling behavior may have caused you to isolate from family and friends. But it’s important to set boundaries about being able to maintain your social life. You need regular contact with family and friends for support, relaxation, and fun. 如果你放弃了旧的社会关系,永远都不会太晚 make new friends.

Take time to relax and unwind. When you’re dealing with someone with paranoid personality disorder it can feel like you’re in the eye of a storm. It’s important to regain your balance and perspective by adopting a daily relaxation practice, such as yoga, deep breathing, or meditation. 世界杯足彩app下载是一个很好的开始 Eye of the Storm guided meditation.

Exercise. Physical activity can be just as important for lowering your stress and anxiety levels as it is for your loved one with PPD. 你们甚至可以一起锻炼或上瑜伽课, 互相激励和鼓励.

吃好,睡眠充足. It’s easy to neglect your diet and skimp on sleep when you’re dealing with a loved one’s mental health problem. But when you eat well and get plenty of sleep, you’re better able to handle stress, remain patient, and control your own emotional response.

Last updated: October 2021

Get more help

Paranoid Personality Disorder -症状、治疗和预后. (Cleveland Clinic)

Paranoid Personality Disorder – Symptoms and treatment. (Psychology Today)

Helplines and support

In the U.S.: Call the NAMI HelpLine at 1-.

UK: Call the SANEline at 07.

Australia: Call the Sane Helpline at 1.

Canada: Visit 加拿大情绪障碍协会 有关省级求助热线的链接.

India: Call the Vandrevala基金会帮助热线 at 1.

Online: 从受PPD影响的人那里获取信息和支持,请访问 偏执型人格障碍论坛.