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weight loss

How to Lose Weight and Keep It Off

的re’s a better way to lose weight. 这些节食技巧可以帮助你避免饮食陷阱,并取得持久的减肥成功.

Young woman smiling while adjusting beam weight scale

What’s the best diet for healthy weight loss?

随便拿一本减肥书,上面都会宣称里面有成功减掉你想要的体重的所有答案——而且会一直保持下去. Some claim the key is to eat less and exercise more, others that low fat is the only way to go, while others prescribe cutting out carbs. So, what should you believe?

事实是没有“一刀切”的方法来永久健康的减肥. What works for one person may not work for you, since our bodies respond differently to different foods, depending on genetics and other health factors. 找到适合自己的减肥方法可能需要时间和耐心, commitment, and some experimentation with different foods and diets.

而有些人对计算卡路里或类似的限制方法反应良好, 另一些人在计划减肥计划时更自由,反应更好. 只要不吃油炸食品或减少精制碳水化合物的摄入就能让他们成功. 所以,如果对别人有效的节食方法对你无效,不要太气馁. 如果某项节食计划对你来说太过严苛,无法坚持下去,也不要自责. 最终,只有你能坚持一段时间的节食才对你是正确的.

Remember: while there’s no easy fix to losing weight, 你可以采取很多步骤来与食物建立更健康的关系, curb emotional triggers to overeating, and achieve a healthy weight.

Four popular weight loss strategies

1. Cut calories

一些专家认为,成功控制体重可以归结为一个简单的等式:如果你摄入的卡路里比你消耗的少, you lose weight. Sounds easy, right? 然后 why is losing weight so hard?

  • Weight loss isn’t a linear event over time. When you cut calories, you may drop weight for the first few weeks, for example, and then something changes. 你吃了同样数量的卡路里,但你的体重减少了或根本没有体重. 这是因为当你减肥的时候,你在失去水分和瘦肉组织以及脂肪, your metabolism slows, and your body changes in other ways. 所以,为了每周继续减肥,你需要继续减少卡路里.
  • A calorie isn’t always a calorie. Eating 100 calories of high fructose corn syrup, for example, 吃100卡路里的西兰花会对你的身体产生不同的影响吗. 持续减肥的诀窍是放弃那些富含卡路里但不会让你感到饱的食物(如糖果),用那些让你感到饱但不会带来卡路里的食物(如蔬菜)代替它们.
  • Many of us don’t always eat simply to satisfy hunger. 世界杯足彩app也会转向食物来寻求安慰或缓解压力,这可能会很快破坏任何减肥计划.

2. 减少碳水化合物

另一种看待减肥的方式认为问题不在于摄入过多的卡路里, 而是身体在摄入碳水化合物后积累脂肪的方式,尤其是胰岛素激素的作用. 当你吃饭时,食物中的碳水化合物会以葡萄糖的形式进入你的血液. In order to 保持 your blood sugar levels in check, 你的身体总是在消耗一顿饭的脂肪之前先消耗掉这些葡萄糖.

If you eat a carbohydrate-rich meal (lots of 意大利面, 大米, 面包, or French fries, for example), 你的身体会释放胰岛素来帮助这些葡萄糖流入你的血液. As well as regulating blood sugar levels, 胰岛素有两种作用:一是阻止脂肪细胞释放脂肪以供身体燃烧(因为它的首要任务是燃烧葡萄糖),二是产生更多的脂肪细胞来储存身体不能燃烧的所有东西. 结果是,你的体重增加了,你的身体现在需要更多的燃料来燃烧,所以你吃得更多. Since insulin only burns carbohydrates, 你渴望碳水化合物,因此开始了一个消耗碳水化合物和增加体重的恶性循环. To lose weight, the reasoning goes, you need to break this cycle by reducing carbs.

碳水化合物循环

Most low-carb diets advocate replacing carbs with protein and fat, which could have some negative long-term effects on your health. If you do try a low-carb diet, 你可以通过选择瘦肉来降低风险,限制饱和脂肪和反式脂肪的摄入量, 鱼 and vegetarian sources of protein, low-fat 乳制品 products, and eating plenty of leafy green and non-starchy 蔬菜.

3. 减少脂肪

它是许多饮食的支柱:如果你不想发胖,就不要吃脂肪. 走在任何一家杂货店的过道上,你都会被低脂零食轰炸, 乳制品, and packaged meals. But while our low-fat options have exploded, so have obesity rates. So, why haven’t low-fat diets worked for more of us?

  1. Not all fat is bad. 健康y or “good” fats 真的能帮助控制你的体重,管理你的情绪和对抗疲劳吗. Unsaturated fats found in avocados, 坚果, 种子, 豆奶, 豆腐, and fatty 鱼 can help fill you up, while adding a little tasty 橄榄油 to a plate of 蔬菜, for example, 能让你更容易吃到健康的食物,提高你饮食的整体质量吗.
  2. We often make the wrong trade-offs. 世界杯足彩app很多人都犯了一个错误,把脂肪换成无热量的糖和精制碳水化合物. Instead of eating whole-fat yoghurt, for example, 世界杯足彩app吃低脂或无脂的食物,但却添加了糖以弥补味觉的损失. 或者,世界杯足彩app把早餐吃的油腻的培根换成了松饼或甜甜圈,这会导致血糖迅速升高.

4. Follow the Mediterranean diet

Mediterranean diet 强调吃好的脂肪和碳水化合物以及大量的新鲜水果和蔬菜, 坚果, 鱼, and 橄榄油—and only modest amounts of meat and cheese. 的 Mediterranean diet is more than just about food, 虽然. 定期的体育锻炼和与他人共餐也是重要的组成部分.

Whatever weight loss strategy you try, it’s important to stay motivated and avoid common dieting pitfalls, such as emotional eating.

Control emotional eating

We don’t always eat simply to satisfy hunger. All too often, we turn to food when we’re stressed or anxious, which can wreck any diet and pack on the pounds. Do you eat when you’re worried, bored, or lonely? Do you snack in front of the TV at the end of a stressful day? Recognizing your emotional eating triggers can make all the difference in your weight-loss efforts. If you eat when you’re:

强调 – find healthier ways to calm yourself. Try yoga, meditation, or soaking in a hot bath.

Low on energy – find other mid-afternoon pick-me-ups. 试着四处走走,听听充满活力的音乐,或者打个盹.

Lonely or bored – reach out to others instead of reaching for the refrigerator. Call a friend who makes you laugh, take your dog for a walk, or go to the library, 购物中心, or park—anywhere there’s people.

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Practice mindful eating instead

Avoid distractions while eating. Try not to eat while working, watching TV, or driving. It’s too easy to mindlessly overeat.

Pay attention. Eat slowly, savoring the smells and textures of your food. 如果你走神了,轻轻地把注意力转移到食物和它的味道上.

Mix things up to focus on the experience of eating. 试着用筷子而不是叉子,或者用你不常用的手使用你的餐具.

Stop eating before you are full. 你受够了的信号需要时间才能到达你的大脑. Don’t feel obligated to always clean your plate.

Stay motivated

永久性减肥需要健康地改变你的生活方式和食物选择. To stay motivated:

Find a cheering section. Social support means a lot. 像珍妮·克雷格(Jenny Craig)和慧俪轻体(Weight Watchers)这样的项目利用团体支持来影响减肥和终身健康饮食. Seek out support—whether in the form of family, 朋友, or a support group—to get the encouragement you need.

Slow and steady wins the race. Losing weight too fast can take a toll on your mind and body, making you feel sluggish, 排干, 和生病. 目标是每周减掉一到两磅,这样你减掉的是脂肪,而不是水和肌肉.

Set goals to 保持 you motivated. Short-term goals, like wanting to fit into a bikini for the summer, 通常不会像为了你的孩子感到更自信或更健康那样奏效. 当诱惑来袭时,专注于你会从更健康中获得的好处.

Use tools to track your progress. Smartphone apps, fitness trackers, 或者简单地写日记可以帮助你记录你所吃的食物, the calories you burn, and the weight you lose. Seeing the results in black and white can help you stay motivated.

Get plenty of sleep. Lack of sleep stimulates your appetite so you want more food than normal; at the same time, it stops you feeling satisfied, making you want to 保持 eating. 睡眠不足也会影响你的动力,所以要以8小时为目标 quality sleep a night.

Cut down on sugar and refined carbs

无论你是否有意减少碳水化合物的摄入,大多数人摄入的碳水化合物量都是不健康的 sugar and refined carbohydrates such as white 面包, pizza dough, 意大利面, 糕点, white flour, white 大米, and sweetened breakfast cereals. 用全谷物的碳水化合物替代精制碳水化合物,消除糖果和甜点只是解决方案的一部分, 虽然. Sugar is hidden in foods as diverse as canned soups and 蔬菜, 意大利面 sauce, 人造黄油, and many reduced fat foods. 因为你的身体从食物中自然产生的糖中获得它所需要的一切, 所有这些添加的糖只会带来大量的空热量和不健康的血糖峰值.

Less sugar can mean a slimmer waistline

从果糖中获取热量(存在于含糖饮料,如苏打水和加工食品,如甜甜圈中), 松饼, and candy) are more likely to add to fat around your belly. 减少含糖食物的摄入意味着腰围变细,患糖尿病的风险也会降低.

Fill up with fruit, veggies, and fiber

即使你在减少卡路里摄入,这并不意味着你必须吃更少的食物. High-fiber foods such as fruit, 蔬菜, 豆子, and whole grains are higher in volume and take longer to digest, making them filling—and great for weight-loss.

一般来说,想吃多少新鲜水果和非淀粉类蔬菜就吃多少是可以的——在摄入过多卡路里之前,你就会感到饱了.

Eat 蔬菜 raw or steamed不炸也不裹面包屑,用香草和香料调味,或者加点橄榄油调味.

Add fruit to low sugar cereal—blueberries, strawberries, sliced bananas. 你仍然会享受到很多的甜味,但热量更少,糖更少,纤维更多.

Bulk out sandwiches 可以选择健康的蔬菜,如生菜、番茄、豆芽、黄瓜和鳄梨.

Snack on carrots or celery with hummus instead of a high-calorie chips and dip.

Add more veggies to your favorite main courses to make your dish more substantial. 如果你少吃面条,多吃蔬菜,即使是意大利面和炒菜也能对你的饮食有益.

Start your meal with salad or vegetable soup to help fill you up so you eat less of your entrée.

Take charge of your food environment

通过掌控你的饮食环境:当你吃东西的时候,让自己成功减肥, how much you eat, and what foods you make easily available.

Cook your own meals at home. 这样你就可以控制食物的份量和食物的成分. 餐馆和包装食品通常含有更多的糖,不健康的脂肪和卡路里 food cooked at home—plus the portion sizes tend to be larger.

Serve yourself s购物中心er portions. 用小盘子、碗和杯子可以让你的食量看起来更大. Don’t eat out of large bowls or directly from food containers, which makes it difficult to assess how much you’ve eaten.

吃早. 研究表明,早餐摄入更多的日常热量,晚餐摄入更少的热量可以帮助你减重. Eating a larger, healthy breakfast can jump-start your metabolism, stop you feeling hungry during the day, and give you more time to burn off the calories.

Fast for 14 hours a day. 试着在一天中早点吃晚餐,然后禁食到第二天的早餐. 只在你最活跃的时候吃东西,让你的消化系统休息一段时间可能有助于减肥.

Plan your meals and snacks ahead of time. 你可以用塑料袋或容器制作自己的小份零食. 按照时间表吃饭可以帮助你在不饿的时候避免吃东西.

Drink more water. 口渴常常会和饥饿混淆,所以喝水可以避免额外的卡路里.

Limit the amount of tempting foods you have at home. 如果你和非节食者共用一个厨房,把放纵的食物储存在看不见的地方.

行动起来

的 degree to which exercise aids weight loss is open to debate, but the benefits go way beyond burning calories. 锻炼 能加快你的新陈代谢,改善你的外貌吗?你现在就能从中受益吗. Go for a walk, 拉伸, 四处走走,你就会有更多的精力和动力去解决你减肥计划中的其他步骤.

Lack time for a long workout? 每天进行三次10分钟的运动,效果和一次30分钟的运动一样好.

Remember: anything is better than nothing. Start off slowly with s购物中心 amounts of physical activity each day. 然后, as you start to lose weight and have more energy, you’ll find it easier to become more physically active.

Find exercise you enjoy. Try walking with a friend, 跳舞, 徒步旅行, 骑自行车, playing Frisbee with a dog, enjoying a pickup game of basketball, or playing activity-based video games with your kids.

Keeping the weight off

你可能听过一个广为引用的统计数据:95%通过节食减肥的人会在几年甚至几个月内重获体重. While there isn’t much hard evidence to support that claim, it is true that many weight-loss plans fail in the long term. 通常这只是因为过于严格的饮食习惯很难长期保持. 然而,这并不意味着你的减肥尝试注定要失败. Far from it.

Since it was established in 1994, 的 National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) in the United States, has tracked over 10,000人减掉了大量的体重,并在很长一段时间内保持不变. 研究发现,那些成功减肥的人都有一些共同的减肥策略. 不管你最初用什么节食法来减肥,养成这些习惯可能会帮助你 保持 了:

  • Stay physically active. 在NWCR研究中,成功的节食者锻炼约60分钟,通常是步行.
  • Keep a food log. 记录下你每天吃的东西可以帮助你保持责任心和积极性.
  • Eat breakfast every day. Most commonly in the study, it’s cereal and fruit. 吃早餐能促进新陈代谢,还能抵御一天中晚些时候的饥饿感.
  • Eat more fiber and less unhealthy fat than the typical American diet.
  • Regularly check the scale. 每周称一次体重可以帮助你发现任何微小的体重增加, 使您能够在问题升级之前及时采取纠正措施.
  • Watch less television. 减少坐在屏幕前的时间是采取更积极的生活方式和防止体重增加的关键部分.

Last updated: October 2020

Get more help

How to Stay Motivated (VIDEO) – Srini Pillay, MD, psychiatrist and brain imaging specialist, discusses the missing rewards that motivate healthy lifestyle change. (哈佛大学 健康 Publishing)

Lose Weight and Keep It Off – Smart approaches to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. (哈佛大学 Medical School Special 健康 Report)

Weight-loss and Nutrition Myths – Debunking myths about food, dieting, and exercise. (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease)

Losing Weight -包括识别障碍和保持体重的建议. (American Heart Association)

Cutting Calories – Strategies for eating more while still losing weight, avoiding portion size pitfalls, and using fruits and 蔬菜 to manage weight. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Low-Carbohydrate Diets 低碳水化合物饮食如何能比低脂饮食更快地帮助一些人减肥. (哈佛大学 School of Public 健康)

Just Enough for You: About Portion Sizes – Tips for managing portion sizes at home and when eating out. (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease)